Zonguldak  is a city and the capital of Zonguldak Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Its population according to the 2000 census was 104,276. It is an important port on the Black Sea, and is famous for its coal mines.

Etymology of the name

The city's name probably comes from Zone Geul-Dagh, the name given to the area by French and Belgian mining companies. Göldağı ("Lake Mountain") is the highest mountain in the vicinity of Devrek district.

Following information about Ereğli coal mining history, will help us to understand Zonguldak name is originated from Zone Geul-Dagh in French: (In Catholic Encyclopedia, with reference of year 1908, Zonguldak town is called as "Zoungoul-Dagh" or in Turkish, Zoungoul mountain; or with Turkish+French meaning, Lake/Göl mountain zone... "Goul-Dagh is a mountain on the south of Zonguldak town, with a little lake... It was a reference benchmark for the new mining zone and sea port location in Eregli region after 1860s.")

Another etymology is that the name originates from the Turkish zongalık or zongura or it may have arisen from the name of the nearby ancient settlement of Sandraka or Sandrake.

According to another theory the name may have come from a compound word, namely Jungle-Dagh, from jungle which the French entrepreneurs named due to uneven and wooded geography of the land, and dağ meaning "a mountain" in Turkish.

Brief history

We know that the discovery of coal in Ereğli (Heraclea) region dated to the reign of Sultan Mahmud II and its extraction dated to Abdülmecid's reign.

The first specimen of Turkish coal was brought from Ereğli to Istanbul in 1822, but nothing was done for exploration and exploitation of this coal. However, in 1829, another specimen of coal was brought to Istanbul by Uzun (The Long) Mehmet, a sailor and native of the village of Kestaneci, near Ereğli. This time attention was given to the discovery and the sailor received a reward of a life pension, but before he could benefit from this reward he was murdered.

The first miners requested and delivered from the Austrian Government are the Austrian Croats known to have been employes in the Ereğli Coal Mines. The correspondence between Istanbul and the embassy in Vienna show that coal production in the Ereğli Basin predates the March 1837 request by 18 months and that production started around September 1835.

An investigation of Hazine-i Hassa (Ottoman Imperial Treasury Department) records in the Ottoman archives shows that regular mining activities in the Ereğli Basin started in February 1841. This is confirmed by a newspaper article published in the 14 February 1841 issue of Ceride-i Havadis.

Ereğli Coal Company chartered by six partners (Ahmed Fethi Pasha, Rıza Pasha, Safveti Pasha, Tahir Bey Efendi, Izzet Pasha and Mustafa Efendi) to excavate the coal in the Ereğli Coal Basin which initially was under the auspice of Darphane-i Amire and was later transferred to Hazine-i Hassa when it was established in 1849.

Administration of Ereğli coal mines after 1845

1848-54 Adminisration by Hazine-i Hassa 1849-54 English (and Galata goldsmiths) Coal Company’s Management 1854-1856 Temporary administration by the English during the Crimean war 1856-1861 Administration by Hazine-i Hassa 1856-1859 Operated by Trust Administration 1859-1860 Operated by Zafiropulos 1860-1861 Operated by the English Coal Company 1861-1865 Administration by Hazine-i Hassa 1865-1908 Administered by the Ministry of Navy 1865-1882 Operated by Shipbuilding Administration 1882-1940 Operated by local and foreign capital companies 1908-1909 Administered by Nafia Nezareti (Ministry of Public Works) 1909-1920 Administered by the Ministry of Forestry,Agriculture and Mineral Trade 1914-1922 Period of World War I and the National Liberation War 1920-1940 Administered by the Ministry of Economics 1926-1940 Operated by Turkiye IS Bankasi (Ankara) 1937-1940 Operated by ETIBANK (Ankara) and EKI 1940-1957 Administered by ETIBANK and EKI (Ereğli Komurleri Isletmesi - Zonguldak) 1957-1984 Administered by TKI (Ankara) 1984- present Administered by TTK (Turkiye Taskomuru Kurumu - Zonguldak)

In 1851, the Company’s production fields are mentioned in the accounting records as "coal mines administered by the Company under the irade-i seniyye in Ereğli, Amasra and various places…" "Various places" mentioned in the records are not known for sure. Records of the period after the Sultan’s participation in the firm mention "coal mines administered by the Company in Bezekli, Amasra, Karaburun areas and various places…." (So, we understand that Zonguldak name did not exist in 1851.)

After 1865, one of these "Various Places" called as Zone-Goul-Dagh or Zon-Goul-Dak with Turkish-French mixed pronouncing.
Ports des mines d'Héraclée (19) 89 AQ 1703 Documentation et correspondence sur la construction du port de Zongouldak (20). 1893-1896 89 AQ 1704 Etudes et projets des ports de Zongouldak et de Koslou par A. Guérard. 1891-1897 89 AQ 1705 Projet du port de Zongouldak. 1897 89 AQ 1706 Projet du port de Zongouldak. 1897-1898 89 AQ 1707 Projet du port de Zongouldak. 1898-1899 89 AQ 1708 Arbitrage entre la Société des ports d'Héraclée et la Compagnie de Fives-Lille (21). 1898

Finally, we understand that, Zone-Goul-Dagh was born as a port town of east Ereğli Coal Mines. Its name was probably given by miners/administrators who speak French. (Société d'Héraclée !?) (Probably, the first name of the town was "Sea Port of Zone-Goul-Dagh"... Because, Goul mountain is about 2-3 kilometers far from sea side...)

Coal mining today

Current coal mining/extraction zones of Zonguldak province/region: Armutçuk (Ereğli), Kozlu (Kozlu), Üzülmez (Zonguldak), Çaydamar (Zonguldak), Baştarla (Zonguldak), Kilimli (Kilimli), Karadon (Kilimli-Çatalağzı), Gelik (Çatalağzı), Amasra (Amasra, Bartın Province)

Coal Washing/Treatment Plants: Zonguldak and Çatalağzı Coal Treatment Plants. Coal Transport: (delivery and import) Port: Zonguldak Sea Port (transport to Ereğli and Istanbul direction), Amasra Port, Ereğli Port Other usable port for mine transport: Bartın Port (coal, cement etc.) Railway: Zonguldak-Ankara Railway (transport to Karabük and Ankara direction)

Thermic Power Plants: Çatalağzı Thermoelectric Power Plant units (use coal powder), in Işıkveren ward. Iron-Steel Plants: Ereğli (Erdemir) Iron and Steel Works, Karabük (Kardemir, Karabük province) Iron and Steel Works.

Average heat capacity of Zonguldak coals: 7000 kcal/kg.

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